Publications (FIS)

Nature-based recreation in Germany

Insights into volume and economic significance

authored by
Johannes Hermes, Christina von Haaren, Dirk Schmücker, Christian Albert

Nature-based recreation presents a key ecosystem service that people derive from landscapes. While numerous studies exist on the valuation of nature-based recreation for specific sites or regions, scientific knowledge gaps remain regarding the economic significance of nature-based recreation at national levels. This study aims to quantify the volume and economic significance of nature-based recreation in Germany, with a focus on leisure activities and weekend recreation. Our objective are to assess (i) motivations, time allocation and travel costs, (ii) frequencies and participation numbers, and (iii) economic significances. The research design includes a representative survey and descriptive statistics. Our results show that 81% of respondents participated in nature-based recreation within year before the survey, while the rest stated no participation. The average frequency was 63 leisure activities, 29 day-trips and seven short overnight trips. ‘Experiencing nature’ was the most frequently mentioned trip motivation. The extrapolated total participation volume in nature-based recreation amounts to 3.3 billiontrips and 16.6 billion hours. The economic significance is€ 151.3 billion, including travel costs, on-site expenses, and opportunity costs. Our study presents novel insights on the significance of NBR in Germany, and can support planning and policy making to safeguard and enhance landscape quality for recreational purposes.

Institute of Environmental Planning
External Organisation(s)
NIT - Institute for Tourism Research in Northern Europe
Ruhr-Universität Bochum
Ecological Economics
Publication date
Publication status
Peer reviewed
ASJC Scopus subject areas
Environmental Science(all), Economics and Econometrics
Sustainable Development Goals
SDG 3 - Good Health and Well-being
Electronic version(s) (Access: Closed)